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Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Part II Listening Comprehension (25 minutes)

(点击开始听力答题)

Section A

Directions: In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through thecentre.

Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.

Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.

Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Questions 19 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.

Shopping for clothes is not the same experience for a man as it is for a woman. A man goes shopping because he needs something. His purpose is 26____ and decided in advance. He knows what he wants, and his 27____ is to find it and buy it; the price is a secondary consideration. All men simply walk into a shop and ask the assistant for what they want. If the shop has it in stock, the salesman 28__ produces it, and the business of trying it on proceed at once. All being well, the deal can be and often is completed in less than five minutes, with hardly any chat and to everyone’ssatisfaction.
For a man, slight problems may begin when the shop does not have what he wants, or does not have exactly what he wants. In that 29____ the salesman, as the name implies, tries to sell the customer something else—he offers the nearest he can to the article required. No good salesman brings out such a 30____ bluntly; he does so with skill and polish. “I know this jacket is not the style you want, sir, but would you like to try it for size? It happens to be the color you mentioned. ” Few men have patience with this treatment, and the usual response is: “This is the right color and may be the right size, but I shouldn’t waste my time and yours by trying it on.”
Now how does a woman go about buying clothes? In almost every respect she does so in the 31____ way. Her shopping is not often based on need. She has never fully made up her mind what she wants, and she is only “having a look around”. She is always open to persuasion; indeed she sets great store by what the salesman tells her, even by what companions tell her. She will try on any number of things. Uppermost in her mind is the thought of finding something that everyone thinks 32____ her. Contrary to a lot of jokes, most women have an excellent sense of value when they buy clothes. They are always on the look-out for the 33____ bargain. Faced with a roomful of dresses, a woman may easily spend an hour going from one rail to another, to and from, often retracing her steps, before 34____ the dresses she wants to try on. It is a laborious process, but 35____ an enjoyable one. So most dress shops provide chairs for the
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Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet2.
      [A] The pitch: Volkswagen promised consumers that its diesel-engine cars were not only fuel efficient but also clean enough to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air-quality standards. American consumers scrambled to get behind the wheel of Volkswagen’s green diesels, which combined high fuel economy, great performance, and the cachet of driving an eco-friendly European vehicle.
      [B] The hitch: American air-quality standards are very different from those in Europe. European emissions standards are more focused on greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, primarily) and fuel economy, while U.S. standards are aimed at limiting smog and adverse health effects, so they target six principal pollutants, such as particulate matter and carbon monoxide. To span this divide, Volkswagen developed a secret sauce that allowed models to pass the EPA’stest.
      [C] The fallout: The secret sauce, it was revealed last year, turned out to be good old-fashioned cheating. Every Volkswagen diesel was equipped with a “defeat device”—software that detected when the car was undergoing emissions testing, says the EPA—that triggered a tightening of the car’s emissions-control system and allowed it to meet emissions standards in the lab. But as soon as the car came off the test treadmill, the engine snapped back to snazzy life, spewing up to 40 times the allowable limit of nitrogen oxide (NOX), which causes respiratory ailments, especially in fragile populations such as the elderly and young children with asthma.
      [D] The company has fessed up to the cheating, but that didn’t stop the EPAfrom going after it. In June, Volkswagen agreed to pay up to $14.7 billion to settle claims with dissatisfied car owners and to answer for violations of the Clean Air Act. If the engineers who designed the cheat told themselves they were hurting no one, they were wrong: Harvard and MIT scientists estimate that the added NOX emissions could cause about 60 early deaths in the United States alone.
      [E] The pitch: Sports stadiums are among the most patriotic places in America. There you might witness a tear-jerking surprise reunion of a soldier just home from Afghanistan with his family, on field reenlistment ceremonies, Air Force flyovers, and more. It’s enough to put a lump in our throats and leave us thanking the individual teams for their commitment to our servicemen and women.
      [F] The hitch: In 2015, it was revealed that what sports fans had assumed were genuine shows of support for the armed forces by teams in the NFL, the NBA, the NHL, Major League Baseball, and Major League Soccer had actually been business deals designed for profit. It wasn’t that the sports teams had never staged sincere shows of patriotism; however, it’s doubtful the fans would have responded so emotionally to all these spectacles had they understood that many of them were lucrative recruiting advertisements, paid for by the Department of Defense.
      [G] The fallout: Arizona senators Jeff Flake and John McCain launched an investigation and published a damning report on “paid patriotism.” They found that the National Guard, the biggest “advertiser,” had dropped millions on sports teams while simultaneously appealing to Congress for funding to meet a $100 million budget shortfall. (A typical example blasted by the senators: a $20,000 payout to the New YorkJets to recognize local Army National Guard soldiers as hometown heroes on the video board, as well as Coaches Club access for the recognized soldiers and three guests.) The senators added that the DOD, operating with a “complete lack of internal controls” couldn’t prove that paid patriotism had helped recruitment.
      [H] It’s certainly easy to be angry with the Department of Defense for wasting money on potentially fruitless advertising. But neither the leagues nor the individual teams should get a pass. After all, they were all too eager to benefit from ouremotions.
      [I] In response to the report, the Department of Defense issued new guidelines that banned paid patriotism. In May, after conducting an audit, the NFL announced it identified $723,734 spent between 2012 and 2015 that “may have been mistakenly applied to appreciation activities rather than recruitment efforts,” which would be returned in full totaxpayers.
      [J] The pitch: “There is virtually no compelling evidence that fast food and sugary drinks cause obesity,” said Steven Blair of Global Energy Balance Network in a video announcing the launch of that scientific research organization. Good health, claimed GEBN, is achieved when an individual balances calories consumed with caloriesburned.
      [K] The hitch: GEBN wasn’t exactly an objective source. In 2014, James Hill, PhD, of the University of Colorado had e-mailed Coca-Cola executives: “It is not fair that Coca-Cola is singled out as the No. l villain in the obesity world,” Hill wrote. “I want to help your company avoid the image of being a problem in people’s lives.” Coca-Cola contributed $1 million to support the creation of the organization. Hill and Blair gave obesity-related media interviews that put some emphasis on calories out than calories in, without any disclosure of their ties to Coke.
      [L] The fallout: After a New York Times article exposed the special relationship between Coca-Cola and GEBN, the two parted ways. GEBN soon shut down and returned the $1 million to the company. Coke’s CEO, Muhtar Kent, has acknowledged an “insufficient amount of transparency” and flaws in Coke’s approach to public health. The company’s chief science and health officer retired in the wake of the scandal, and Coke has since rolled out an oversight committee and a sales strategy that focuses on smaller cans andbottles.
      [M] This may not have been the first time the company has bungled in public health sphere. According to The Times, back in 2001, Coca-Cola sponsored a campaign called “H2No,” in which wait staff at some restaurants were trained to correct diners, troublesome practice of ordering tap water instead of Coke.

Section C

46.Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

People decide quickly how trustworthy a stranger is, based on what his face looks like. And experiments show that, regarding any particular individual, they generally come to the same conclusion. There really are, it seems, trustworthy and untrustworthy faces—though, surprisingly, there is little consensus among researchers as to whether someone whose face is deemed devious really is more likely to betray a trust. The perceivably untrustworthy do, however, suffer for their phizogs. And a study published in this month’s Psychological Science suggests that in extreme cases—in America at least—this suffering may be fatal. John Wilson and Nicholas Rule, psychologists at the University of Toronto, looked at convicted murderers in the American state of Florida, which retains the death penalty. They selected 371 prisoners on death row and a further 371 who were serving life sentences. To avoid confounding variables, all those chosen were male and were either black or white (no Asians or other ethnic groups). Each sample included 226 white convicts and 145 black ones. A group of 208 volunteers whom Dr. Wilson and Dr. Rule had recruited were then invited to rate photographs of each convict’s face for trustworthiness, on a scale of one to eight, where one was “not at all trustworthy” and eight was “very trustworthy”. The results of all this work revealed that the faces of prisoners who were on death row had an average trustworthiness of 2.76 and that those serving life sentences averaged 2.87. Not a huge difference, but one that was statistically significant (it, or something larger, would have happened by chance less often than one time in 100). That suggests untrustworthy-looking defendants are more likely to face a lethal injection, if convicted, than trustworthy-looking ones. To show that this was not a result of people with untrustworthy faces actually committing more heinous (and therefore death-penalty-worthy) murders, Dr. Wilson and Dr. Rule also looked at the faces of those who had been convicted of murder, sentenced and then acquitted on appeal, usually on the basis of DNA evidence. These innocents, too, had more often been sentenced to death in their original trials if their faces were rated untrustworthy. In Floridian courts, at least, it seems that your face really is your fortune.

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

Culture shock is used by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Those signs or cues include a lot of ways in which we orient ourselves to the situation of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. These cues, which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms, are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us depend for the peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of which we do not carry on the level of conscious awareness. Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these familiar cues are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded or full of good will you may be, a series of props have been knocked from under you, followed by a feelingof frustration and anxiety. People react to the frustration in much the same way. First, they reject the environment which causes the discomfort. “The ways of the host country are bad because they make us feel bad.” When foreigners in a strange land get together to grouse about the host country and its people you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To the foreigner everything becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality. Some of the symptoms of culture shock are excessive washing of the hands, excessive concern over drinking water, food dishes, and bedding; fear of physical contact with attendants, the absent-minded stare; a feeling of helplessness and a desire for dependence on long-term residents of one’s own nationality; fits of anger over minor frustrations; great concern over minor pains and eruptions of the skin; and finally, that terrible longing to be back.

Part IV Translation (30 minutes)

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